Photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (PCR)

Photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (PCR)

Please help with the following questions:

1) Explain how CO2 enters leaves. What environmental factors control stomatal movement? How are these factors related to physical and chemical properties that control the opening and closing of stomata?

2) What are the primary stages in the photosynthetic carbon reduction (PCR) cycle? Explain the role of each stage. Please attach a diagram.

3) Explain how the ATP and NADPH produced by the photosynthetic electron transport chain are used in the PCR cycle.

4) What roles do light and Rubisco play in regulating the PCR cycle? Explain your answer.

5) Explain how cells release energy through glycolysis, respiration, and fermentation. Identify pathways in each stage. Describe each stage’s role in releasing energy.

6) What is the role of enzymes in degrading starch and sugar? Explain your answer.

7) Discuss some similarities and differences between respiration and fermentation.

8) Aerobic organisms are usually larger than anaerobic organisms. Suggest how this might be related to respiration.
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