What Dermatological Diseases Typically Fall Under the Heading of Acne?

What Dermatological Diseases Typically Fall Under the Heading of Acne?

Acne is a skin disorder that commonly affects adolescents, and also some adults. Causative factors include heredity, hormonal changes, the use of oil-based facial and hair products and possibly a poor diet. Acne affects the sebaceous glands in the skin. The pilosebaceous unit of the skin contains the sebaceous gland, the hair follicle and a hair (Brannon, 2014). The role of the sebaceous unit is to secrete an oil-like substance, called sebum, to keep moisture in the skin. Genetic predisposition and the release of increased androgen hormones in adolescence result in hypertrophy of the sebaceous gland and increased sebum secretion. The face, upper arms, chest and back have a large number of sebaceous glands. As more sebum is secreted, the hair follicle becomes clogged. The clogged follicle attracts bacteria. An inflammatory reaction takes place. As a result, skin lesions break out on the skin. They appear as blackheads, whiteheads, or comedones, pustules, nodules and cyst like lesions. There are different types of acne. One type is acne vulgaris, which causes outbreaks of comedones, pustules and nodules. It is the type of acne that commonly appears in adolescence, or in other disorders that have hormone changes. Acne conglobata usually appears at a later stage in life, and causes channels and abcesses within the skin that secretes malodorous pus. These lesions result in scars (Derm Net, 2015). Nodulocystic acne is a more severe type of acne. The cysts, which have no sac within them, are inflamed and commonly occur in males. Another type of severe acne is acne fulminans. This condition causes acute, systemic illness. It causes fever, joint pain, liver and spleen hypertrophy and weight loss. Pharmacologic therapy with corticosteroids is necessary to decrease the inflammatory response. Another type of skin condition is gram negative folliculitis. This can occur when an individual has been on longterm antibiotic therapy for severe acne. This bacteria can be resistant to many antimicrobials (Skin Care Physicians, 2014).