Why is it difficult to determine “cause and effect” from non-experimental or observational studies?

Why is it difficult to determine “cause and effect” from non-experimental or observational studies?

Why is it difficult to determine “cause and effect” from non-experimental or observational studies? In writing your essay, please address the following using references from the literature to support your answers.

1. What is meant by cause and effect? (15%)

2. Identify and explain specific design features of both experimental and non-experimental studies. (40%)

3. Explain how these design features influence how we interpret the outcome or results of the study. (40%)

4. Application of APA format and correct. grammar. BE SURE TO INCLUDE A TITLE PAGE and A REFERENCE PAGE. (5%)

5. Required : 3-4 double spaced pages (excluding title page and reference pages).