Women political leaders in Indonesia.

Women political leaders in Indonesia.

 History & spread of Islam
The following is a brief account of the history and spread of Islam:
? Islam was born in an Arabia that was deeply coloured by the values, presence & the literature of the Bedouin Arabs. However, Muslims were able to elaborate the structures they inherited as to form one of the great religious civilisations of human history. In the early years after Muhammad’s death, Islam & Muslim rule spread beyond Arabia based on military powers.
? 570 – birth of Prophet Muhammad
? 610 – Prophet Muhammad receives the first revelations of the Qur’an in Mecca.
? 612-622 – Prophet Muhammad’s preachings were not well received by the Meccan establishment ? general persecution ? received invitation to lead the community in Medina
? 622-632 – migration of Muhammad & his followers from Mecca to Medina.
622 – marked the beginning of the Muslim era, & the year that Muslims under Muhammad established their political existence based on Islam. The Qur’an, the word of God, as revealed to Muhammad, was (is) the principle source for the workings of the Islamic state. These include:
? Moral responsibility, autonomy & dignity of the individual
? Detailed rules guiding Muslims in daily life – food taboos, hygiene, inter-personal & gender relations
? Concept of umma – a Muslim’s social responsibility is directed to the umma, Loyalty to the umma is seen as inseparable from loyalty to God. Membership of umma cuts across all distinctions of family, class & ethnicity, & in the contemporary world, that of the nation-state.
? After the death of Prophet Muhamamd in 632, Islam spread throughout the Arabian peninsula and beyond. Immediately after Muhammad, came the reign of the four Rightly-Guided caliphs:
? Abu Bakr (632-634), & Umar (634-644) – strong leadership, assured unity of Muslim community. Egypt & much of Iran under Muslim domination.
? Uthman (644-656) – expansionist policy followed, but less successful – strong opposition led to murder of Uthman.PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUNT 🙂

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